Configuring and controlling Open SSH Service

Creating an SSH key

You can check out GitHub documentation for that. Creating a new ssh key with ssh-keygen you need to enter a passphrase if you went your ssh key to be encrypted:

ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C "your_email@example.com"

A pair of ssh keys will be created in ~/.ssh/:

  • Public one: id_rsa.pub that you can share with others
  • Private one: id_rsa that you need to keep private

If you get an error like that:

Permissions 0777 for '/Users/username/.ssh/id_rsa' are too open.
It is recommended that your private key files are NOT accessible by others.
This private key will be ignored.

You should change the key permission using:

chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa

SSH connection

Basics

To connect via SSH to a server:

ssh <user>@<remotehost> -p <port>

When you connect for the first time to a host, it will print its fingerprint, then you can add it to your ~/.ssh/known_hosts To check what happen for ssh connection, you can see at /etc/ssh

When ssh into a server the command executed is the bash shell so while it is running you stay connected. You can quit by using ctrl + d or by typing exit.

With passphrase

If you had created your ssh key with a passphrase, you might not want to enter your passphrase each time. For that you can save it in your ssh key to your ssh agent using:

# Start the ssh agent
eval $(ssh-agent)
# To add and save permanently
ssh-add -k ~/.ssh/id_rsa

You may need to reboot for the config to be loaded.

Add a SSH key to a remote host

Using authorized_keys

You can go to the remote server and add the public key my_key.pub inside the /home/user/.ssh/authorized_keys folder. So that the next time you connect to that server you won’t be prompt for the password for that user. Using:

ssh -i my_key.pem user@server

The my _key.pem and my_key.pub are a matching public and private key pair.

With ssh-copy-id

Or there is a daemon called ssh-copy-id which is part of the OpenSSH tool, that will do all the necessary steps automatically to add yourself to a host as an authorized remote user.

To do so use the command as follows:

ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa user@server

Like before, next time you try to ssh into that server with that ssh key, no password will be asked.

SSH spoofing

You can get this message if for example someone is messing with the DNS or the IP of the site you want to access has changed.

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@       WARNING: POSSIBLE DNS SPOOFING DETECTED!          @
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
The RSA host key for github.com has changed,
and the key for the corresponding IP address 145.185.15.15
is unknown. This could either mean that
DNS SPOOFING is happening or the IP address for the host
and its host key have changed at the same time.
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@    WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED!     @
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY!
Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that a host key has just been changed.
The fingerprint for the RSA key sent by the remote host is
SHA256:0p4WBUiBh1+oS2y0OkLBvNd3fyYw30N31iDRxOlGHPg.
Please contact your system administrator.
Add correct host key in /Users/user/.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
Offending RSA key in /Users/user/.ssh/known_hosts:10
RSA host key for <remote host> has changed and you have requested strict checking.
Host key verification failed.

You can remove the host from your known_hosts and try connecting. You will be prompted with unkwon_host and you’ll need to add the new fingerprint to your known_hosts.

However, if you’ve seen that message above, you should think twice before doing that.